Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance, which is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy after an oral glucose tolerance test. GDM is a major health problem affecting about 1-10% of all pregnancies and its incidence is further increasing. GDM is also associated with serious complications for mothers and their infants such as a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy and macrosomia. When these women have been diagnosed with GDM, this may encourage them to develop a healthy lifestyle. They are informed and get instruction on diabetic care such as on diet, exercise and monitoring of blood sugars. This may prevent or (more often) postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes later in life.


Risk Factors for GDM:

  • Maternal age of 26 and older.
  • Overweight and obesity (BMI > 27)
  • Family history of GDM or type 2 diabetes (T2D) and previous history of abnormal glucose tolerance
  • Ethnicity: women from Hispanic, African, Native American, South or East Asia ancestry
  • Previous history of large newborn (more than 4 kg)



  1. Archambault C. Gestational diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease: a scoping review 2014 Open Med. (PMID:25009679)
  2. Coustan DR. Gestational diabetes mellitus 2013 Clin Chem. (PMID:23536513)


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